Today's market is ruled by two different types of momentum--here's how to navigate

01/25/2013 8:30 am EST

Focus: STOCKS

Jim Jubak

Founder and Editor, JubakPicks.com

We’ve got a momentum market.

And a particularly tricky one since investors are following two different momentum trends in their buy/sell/hold decisions. That’s why I’m finding the investment diary I keep especially valuable right now.

Let me start by telling you about the two different kinds of momentum that I see driving global stock markets right now. And then explain what kind of investment diary I keep and how it’s useful in this environment.

The first kind of momentum is your everyday, garden-variety momentum. Investors and traders are buying stocks, driving them higher, because they see stocks moving higher.

On Wednesday, January 23, the Standard & Poor’s 500 stock index rallied for the sixth trading session in a row. As of Wednesday the index had set new five-year highs during the previous four days. For the day, new highs on the New York Stock Exchange outpaced new lows 357 to 7. I remember checking in just before noon and being stunned at the list of stocks that had already set new 52-week highs: Blackrock (BLK), Cree (CREE), Disney (DIS), Lennar (LEN) Marathon Petroleum (MPC), Monsanto (MON), National Oilwell Varco (NOV), Novartis (NVS), Southern Copper (SCCO), Stryker (SYK), and Weyerhaeuser (WY) to name just a few.

I remember scanning the list and thinking “What should I buy? I don’t want to be left behind.”

Which is, of course, the thinking that drives momentum rallies. Everything is going up, it seems, and everybody is making money, so it’s time to jump on board. Sentiment indicators such as the AAII (American Association of Individual Investors) survey have been moving in a bullish direction since November. Last week’s AAII survey was the seventh in eight weeks to show bullish sentiment over 40%. (The historical average is 39% in this survey.) And while from a long-term perspective the time to buy is when this survey is bearish and the time to worry is when it is bullish, in the shorter term numbers like these indicate an upward trend still in place.

The urge to jump in because stocks are rising can be an especially powerful fuel for a market rally when there’s a lot of money available to move into stocks. That seems to be the case right now as cash flows into equities have soared with a climbing stock market. To cite one indicator of that, according to the Investment Company Institute, back in November investors took a net $23.2 billion out of mutual funds that invest in stocks. That was up from an outflow of $16.4 billion in October and continued a pattern that had held for much of 2012 of money flowing out of stock funds. Those outflows first slowed in December and then reversed in January. For example, in the week that ended on January 16, $9.32 billion flowed into equity mutual funds. That followed inflows of $14.3 billion into equity funds for the week ended on January 9. The money flowing into equity funds seems to be coming off the sidelines where it was in cash or cash equivalents or out of bonds and bond funds.

With stocks going up, investors want to put more money into stocks. That’s a pretty good description of a momentum market.

But this is only one of two kinds of momentum at work right now.

I call the second kind macro momentum. And it goes like this: If stocks were moving up when we were all afraid of the collapse of the euro, the U.S. fiscal cliff, and a paralyzing fight over raising the U.S. debt ceiling, then doesn’t it follow that stocks should move even higher now that we’re no longer afraid of those bad things? And if we’ve had, in addition, moves from the Bank of Japan and the Federal Reserve that support the prices of financial assets?

You can think of this kind of momentum as equivalent to an extended relief rally. If you were reluctant to put money into stocks with the fiscal cliff looming, well, that’s no longer a potential risk. Nor is the debt ceiling. The EuroZone crisis is on the backburner as well. China’s economy isn’t headed for a hard landing. Japan is going to try to stimulate its way out of another recession.

Suddenly, what’s to worry about?

I can make a case that all this absence of worry is already priced in and that GDP and earnings growth don’t support a move higher from here. Didn’t the World Bank just cut its growth projections for 2013 for pretty much every economy from the United States to China? (That’s a rhetorical question. Yes, the bank did.)

And isn’t earnings growth looking kind of anemic? On December 31, the projected growth rate for the S&P 500 stocks for the fourth quarter from Wall Street analysts was just 2.6%. That follows on a drop in S&P 500 earnings of 3.6% in the third quarter of 2012.

But that’s looking backwards. What counts now is projected earnings for 2013. The Wall Street consensus on S&P 500 earnings for 2013 as of the beginning of January was $113.88. (Which would be earnings growth of somewhere between 10% and 13% for the year depending on where earnings for the S&P 500 come out in 2012 when the fourth quarter is completely in the book.) That would put the forward projected price-to-earnings ratio at 13.13 on the January 23 closing price on the S&P 500. That’s slightly above the five-year average forward price-to-earnings ratio of 12.8, but not far enough above so that its flashes a red light to momentum investors who don’t want to see warnings signs anyway.

Adding all this up, I see a momentum market where the momentum could run for a while—until, say, the next round of the debt ceiling battle in April, or a return of the euro debt crisis in June, or evidence of faltering growth in the United States and a deeper than now projected recession in the EuroZone at the end of the second quarter. (I think the projections of S&P 500 earnings for 2013 will turn out to be too high.)

Which creates a quandary that’s all too familiar to investors from the volatile markets of 2011 and 2012. How do you stay in the market to profit from the momentum without losing touch with fundamentals so that you wind up with big losses when the momentum eventually stops?

This is where I find my investing diary so useful. In my diary (which is actually an Excel spreadsheet) I record not just when I bought a stock and the price, but why I bought or sold and how I calculated the target price. The “why” is critical because reviewing my reasoning tells me if anything fundamental has changed that would justify a higher target price. This analysis tells me if I’m simply riding momentum (in which case watch out and sell sooner rather than later) or if I’ve still got some solid ground under my position in that stock.

A lot of investors keep this kind of “Why?” diary and I highly recommend it to you.

But I like to take it a step further and keep notes on how I set the target price for each stock. This isn’t so much a rehash of the method that I used but a note on how I felt about the assumptions that I used to make that forecast. Did I feel that I was reaching for the most positive assumptions in order to get to a target price that produced a 15% potential gain in the stock? (I use benchmark rates of return that go higher as my estimate of the risk in the stock increases.) Or did I feel the target price was based on relatively conservative estimates and that the stock had plenty of overhead above that target?

How is this kind of diary useful? Take the example of Nestle (NSRGY), a current member of my Jubak’s Picks portfolio http://jubakpicks.com/ . When I bought it for the portfolio on September 21, 2012 I set a 12-month target price of $69 a share. Share appreciation to that target plus Nestlé’s dividend would give me a 10.5% potential return on this pick. Not great, I wrote then, but good enough for a very tough market and good enough for a stock that carried very little risk. I would have set the target higher if the numbers had been there, but they weren’t. In my diary I noted that I thought $69 a share was an aggressive target.

The stock closed at $68.61 a share on January 23. That’s almost my target price. And from my diary entry—and after checking to see if anything fundamental has changed—I don’t see raising the target price as justified. If I’m going to hold Nestle here, I’m counting on gains from the market’s momentum and not from fundamentals. That doesn’t mean I’m going to sell immediately. But it does mean that I’m not going to delude myself that Nestle is anything more than a momentum play above $69. A buy/sell/hold decision on Nestle here is a judgment call on the market’s momentum.

I’d contrast that diary entry on Nestle with the one on another member of my Jubak’s Picks portfolio Home Inns and Hotels Management (HMIN.) That entry noted that the stock might have considerable headroom above the $34 a share target price that I’d set—but that it was very hard to tell because key fundamental metrics such as occupancy rates and RevPAR (revenue per available room) were difficult to read at the moment because of a big acquisition and the effects of the Shanghai special exposition. If those metrics picked up with an acceleration in economic growth in China in the last quarter of the year, an increase in the target price would be justified, I noted to myself then. With that note in mind, and even in this momentum market, I’d know to take a look at any changes in fundamentals and to see if fundamentals had changed before making a buy/sell/hold decision.

Keeping this kind of note about decisions to buy or sell or hold won’t assure that you don’t sell too early in a momentum market or hold on too long. They should, however, help you to know when a position is still based on fundamentals and when it’s purely a momentum play. Making sure you know the difference is, I’d argue, a critical step in making the most profit and taking the least loss in a momentum market, especially one that combines two different types of momentum.

Nobody said that a rising market didn’t present its own set of challenges.

Full disclosure: I don’t own shares of any of the companies mentioned in this post in my personal portfolio. The mutual fund I manage, Jubak Global Equity Fund http://jubakfund.com/ , may or may not now own positions in any stock mentioned in this post. The fund did own shares of Home Inns and Hotels Management as of the end of September. For a full list of the stocks in the fund as of the end of September see the fund’s portfolio at http://jubakfund.com/about-the-fund/holdings/

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